Notify of Wendy I would appreciate it if the responses stuck to the facts of an individuals problem or question and are helpful to the users on this site. The bottom line is that everyone on this site has something in common. In an ideal world ALL special needs children would get the appropriate services. Every parent has to be an advocate.
Messenger John, years-old, is three times as old as his brother. How old will John be when he is twice as old as his brother?
Two families go bowling. If they are going to split the bill between the families, how much does each family owe? What number is missing from the sequence? These are questions from online Intelligence Quotient or IQ tests.
Tests that purport to measure your intelligence can be verbalmeaning written, or non-verbalfocusing on abstract reasoning independent of reading and writing skills. Education systems use IQ tests to help identify children for special education and gifted education programmes and to offer extra support.
Researchers across the social and hard sciences study IQ test results also looking at everything from their relation to geneticssocio-economic statusacademic achievementand race.
If you want to boast about your high IQ, you should have been able to work out the answers to the questions. And 49 is the missing number in the sequence. Despite the hype, the relevance, usefulness, and legitimacy of the IQ test is still hotly debated among educators, social scientists, and hard scientists.
The first of these tests was developed by French psychologist Alfred Binet, who was commissioned by the French government to identify students who would face the most difficulty in school.
At its conception, the IQ test provided a relatively quick and simple way to identify and sort individuals based on intelligence — which was and still is highly valued by society. In the US and elsewhere, institutions such as the military and police used IQ tests to screen potential applicants.
They also implemented admission requirements based on the results. Results were used to determine how capable a solider was of serving in the armed forces and identify which job classification or leadership position one was most suitable for.
Ironically, some districts in the US have recently employed a maximum IQ score for admission into the police force. The fear was that those who scored too highly would eventually find the work boring and leave — after significant time and resources had been put towards their training. Ethnocentrics and eugenicists, who viewed intelligence and other social behaviours as being determined by biology and race, latched onto IQ tests.
They held up the apparent gaps these tests illuminated between ethnic minorities and whites or between low- and high-income groups. Some maintained that these test results provided further evidence that socioeconomic and racial groups were genetically different from each other and that systemic inequalities were partly a byproduct of evolutionary processes.
Brigham applied meticulous statistical analyses to demonstrate that American intelligence was declining, claiming that increased immigration and racial integration were to blame.
To address the issue, he called for social policies to restrict immigration and prohibit racial mixing. A few years before, American psychologist and education researcher Lewis Terman had drawn connections between intellectual ability and race.
Inhe wrote: High-grade or border-line deficiency … is very, very common among Spanish-Indian and Mexican families of the Southwest and also among Negroes. Their dullness seems to be racial, or at least inherent in the family stocks from which they come … Children of this group should be segregated into separate classes … They cannot master abstractions but they can often be made into efficient workers … from a eugenic point of view they constitute a grave problem because of their unusually prolific breeding.
This critique continues todaywith many researchers resistant to and alarmed by research that is still being conducted on race and IQ. But in their darkest momentsIQ tests became a powerful way to exclude and control marginalised communities using empirical and scientific language.
These were people, eugenicists argued, who threatened to dilute the White Anglo-Saxon genetic stock of America. A plaque in Virginia in memory to Carrie Buck, the first person to be sterilised under eugenics laws in the state.
The ruling, known as Buck v Bellresulted in over 65, coerced sterilisations of individuals thought to have low IQs. Those in the US who were forcibly sterilised in the aftermath of Buck v Bell were disproportionately poor or of colour. Compulsory sterilisation in the US on the basis of IQ, criminality, or sexual deviance continued formally until the mid s when organisations like the Southern Poverty Law Center began filing lawsuits on behalf of people who had been sterilised.
Inthe US Senate voted to compensate living victims of government-sponsored sterilisation programmes. Some researchers say that intelligence is a concept specific to a particular culture. They maintain that it appears differently depending on the context — in the same way that many cultural behaviours would.
For example, burping may be seen as an indicator of enjoyment of a meal or a sign of praise for the host in some cultures and impolite in others. What may be considered intelligent in one environment, therefore, might not in others. For example, knowledge about medicinal herbs is seen as a form of intelligence in certain communities within Africa, but does not correlate with high performance on traditional Western academic intelligence tests.Children with high IQs may be eligible for special education and related services Eligibility teams should consider support provided by parents Evaluations to determine eligibility must include testing of the seven areas mentioned in the special ed regulations.
IQ score (Hollingworth, ; Terman, ). Since then, arguments have been advanced for expanding and differ- entiating conceptions of giftedness. For instance, Stern- berg' s (, , ) triarchic theory of intelligence allows for three very different kinds of gifts: analytic, synthetic, and practical.
The use of IQ tests for the purpose of qualifying students for special education placement is at the forefront of the test bias controversy. Despite this fact, IQ tests continue to be used to identify students for special education. Racial Bias. Jensen () has published what may be the most comprehensive review of racial bias in psychometric tests.
An IQ score of is meant to reflect the average (mean) score for children the same age as the child being tested. A score over implies better than average intelligence, and scores below (actually, 90) implies some level of cognitive difference.
Any long term decision about educational needs or placement in a special education setting should consider a series of IQ scores, with a host of other behaviors that are not identified through such tests. Remedial and Special Education, v19 n4 p Jul-Aug Reviews the use of IQ scores in determining special education placement.
It argues that although IQ is central to state education codes and their eligibility criteria for special education, the evidence shows that many children exhibiting psychometric scores that would make them eligible are never referred.