Introduction Despite 50 years of development experience, fundamental questions remain unanswered. The world still lacks a comprehensive theoretical framework that adequately explains such phenomenon as the accelerating velocity of development exhibited by East Asian countries, the failure of Malthusian projections, the growing contribution of non-material resources not subject to depletion, the apparent failure of market policies in the transition of Eastern Europe, and conflicting predictions about the future of work based on the contrary recent experiences of North America and Western Europe. A profusion of economic theories provide explanations for specific expressions of development, but none unite the pieces into a unified theory that adequately defines the central principles, process and stages of development. The formulation of a comprehensive theory of development would make conscious the world's experience over the past years, reveal enormous untapped potentials and vastly accelerate the speed of future progress.
The simplest way to promote independence of decision and action in an EMB is to create a legal framework that embeds EMB independence, as provided in the constitutions and principal EMB laws of many countries, such as Mexico, South Africa, Uruguay and Zambia.
Such a link to the judiciary may make undue interference by the government or opposition parties in EMB operations less likely. In governmental EMBs, the appointment as executive head of a public servant known for his or her integrity and unwillingness to be politically directed, as in Northern Ireland, can have a similar effect.
Impartiality To establish the integrity and credibility of electoral processes, and promote the widespread acceptance of election results, an EMB must not only conduct electoral events in a fearlessly independent manner; it must also be impartial in its actions.
Every EMB is expected to manage elections impartially. Irrespective of the model, its source of accountability, management control or funding, the EMB should treat all election participants equally, fairly and even-handedly, without giving advantage to any political tendency or interest group.
Except in countries that have a tradition of a non-aligned civil service, the decisions and activities of EMBs under the Governmental or Mixed Models may be publicly regarded as likely to favour the incumbent government.
Yet governmental EMBs in some countries that use the Mixed Model such as Spain and some countries that use the Governmental Model such as Finland and Sweden are generally regarded as impartial. Impartiality is a state of mind more than a statement in law, although it can be encouraged by a constitutional and legal framework that enables the effective external review of EMB decisions and by an EMB code of conduct with strong sanctions that are independently administered.
It is important that the general public perceives EMBs as impartial. This can best be achieved by ensuring that all EMB actions are transparent and just, and are effectively publicized and communicated.
Integrity The EMB is the primary guarantor of the integrity and purity of the electoral process, and EMB members are directly responsibility for ensuring this. Integrity may be easier to maintain if the EMB has both full independence of action and full control of all essential electoral processes, including full control over budgets and staffing.
Where other bodies have electoral functions, EMBs need to be empowered to monitor their activities closely to ensure that they meet the highest integrity standards. Ignoring such problems can create larger public issues of integrity and credibility than the public use of disciplinary powers.
Transparency is a basic good practice for all EMB activities. Electoral transparency may be backed by electoral law, for example by a requirement that the EMB inform the public of its activities, as in Indonesia. Even without such formal backing, an EMB may adopt a transparency policy.
The absence of transparency in electoral processes invariably leads to the suspicion that fraudulent activities are taking place. However, sometimes members of an EMB may be unfamiliar with electoral practices and procedures; at other times they may not be used to dealing with contracting for equipment and materials in a cut- throat corporate environment.
Where trust is lacking in the political process generally, an EMB is unlikely to be given the benefit of the doubt. Professionalism Professionalism in electoral managements requires accurate, service-oriented implementation of electoral procedures by suitably skilled staff.
However, while a continuous training and skill development programme is an essential part of creating and maintaining a professional EMB, professionalism depends just as much on the attitude of every member and secretariat staff person. A personal commitment from each individual in an EMB to equity, accuracy, diligence and service in all they do, and to self-improvement, is necessary to maintain professionalism in electoral management.
A lack of visible professionalism in electoral management, on the other hand, will create public suspicions of inaccurate and perhaps fraudulent activity, and a lack of trust.
Service-mindedness EMBs not only have a responsibility to provide a service to their stakeholders— it is the major reason for their existence. Some basic service standards are often included in the electoral legal framework, as in Canada: Further useful service delivery standards can be adopted by the EMB itself as part of its procedures for each electoral process.
These may be time-based service standards such as the average, maximum and minimum times voters spend queuing to receive ballot papers, the time within which an enquiry from a member of the public will be answered, or the average time taken to process voter registration data for an elector.As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from kaja-net.com Government’s poverty alleviation programmes fail to meet objectives.
In February during the State of the Nation address, former President Thabo Mbeki announced a “sustained campaign against poverty and underdevelopment”.
Dec 16, · Media and Elections. The media are essential to democracy, and a democratic election is impossible without media. A free and fair election is not only about the freedom to vote and the knowledge of how to cast a vote, but also about a participatory process where voters engage in public debate and have adequate information about parties, policies, candidates and the election process .
Mindspark Interactive. Help Uninstall EULA Privacy Uninstall EULA Privacy. A. Introduction. Contents Index End.
In their discourses on government, Plato and Aristotle discussed all those problems which were important to an Attic citizen if he were to understand and order his kaja-net.com encyclopædic approach was also used in theories of government that were developed in the Middle Ages (Rehm L/).
Significant Energy E vents in Earth's and Life's History as of Energy Event. Timeframe. Significance. Nuclear fusion begins in the Sun.
c. billion years ago (“bya”) Provides the power for all of Earth's geophysical, geochemical, and ecological systems, with .